(精华)2020年10月2日 微服务 logstash的使用

logstash-使用

logstash pipeline 包含两个必须的元素:input和output,和一个可选元素:filter。

从input读取事件源,(经过filter解析和处理之后),从output输出到目标存储库(elasticsearch或其他)。

在生产环境使用logstash,一般使用都将配置写入文件里面,然后启动logstash。

具体参照官网:https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/logstash/7.1/index.html

处理nginx日志

# vim nginx_access.conf
input{
    file{
        path => "/var/log/nginx/access.log"
        start_position => "beginning"
        type => "nginx_access_log"
    }
}
filter{
    grok{
        match => {"message" => "%{IPORHOST:clientip} %{USER:ident} %{USER:auth} \[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}\] \"%{WORD:verb} %{DATA:request} HTTP/%{NUMBER:httpversion}\" %{NUMBER:response:int} (?:-|%{NUMBER:bytes:int}) \"(?:-|%{DATA:referrer})\" \"%{DATA:user_agent}\" (?:%{IP:proxy}|-) %{DATA:upstream_addr} %{NUMBER:upstream_request_time:float} %{NUMBER:upstream_response_time:float}"}
        match => {"message" => "%{IPORHOST:clientip} %{USER:ident} %{USER:auth} \[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}\] \"%{WORD:verb} %{DATA:request} HTTP/%{NUMBER:httpversion}\" %{NUMBER:response:int} (?:-|%{NUMBER:bytes:int}) \"%{DATA:referrer}\" \"%{DATA:user_agent}\" \"%{DATA:proxy}\""}
    }
    if [request] {
        urldecode {
            field => "request"
        }
       ruby {
           init => "@kname = ['url_path','url_arg']"
           code => "
               new_event = LogStash::Event.new(Hash[@kname.zip(event.get('request').split('?'))])
               event.append(new_event)"
       }
        if [url_arg] {
            ruby {
               init => "@kname = ['key', 'value']"
               code => "event.set('url_args', event.get('url_arg').split('&').collect {|i| Hash[@kname.zip(i.split('='))]})"
                }
        }
    }
    geoip{
        source => "clientip"
    }
    useragent{
        source => "user_agent"
        target => "ua"
        remove_field => "user_agent"
    }
    date {
        match => ["timestamp","dd/MMM/YYYY:HH:mm:ss Z"]
        locale => "en"
    }
    mutate{
        remove_field => ["message","timestamp","request","url_arg"]
    }
}
output{
    elasticsearch {      
        hosts => "localhost:9200"
        index => "nginx-access-log-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"   
    }
#  stdout {       
#     codec => rubydebug    
#  }
}

如果是想测试配置文件写的是否正确,用下面这个方式启动测试一下

/usr/share/logstash/bin/logstash -t -f /etc/logstash/conf.d/nginx.conf  #测试配置文件
Configuration OK
/usr/share/logstash/bin/logstash -f /etc/logstash/conf.d/nginx_access.conf  #启动logstash

启动logstash

# systemctl start logstash

input plugin 让logstash可以读取特定的事件源。

官网:https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/logstash/current/input-plugins.html

事件源可以是从stdin屏幕输入读取,可以从file指定的文件,也可以从es,filebeat,kafka,redis等读取

  • stdin 标准输入

  • file

    从文件读取数据

    file{
        path => ['/var/log/nginx/access.log']  #要输入的文件路径
        type => 'nginx_access_log'
        start_position => "beginning"
    }
    # path  可以用/var/log/*.log,/var/log/**/*.log,如果是/var/log则是/var/log/*.log
    # type 通用选项. 用于激活过滤器
    # start_position 选择logstash开始读取文件的位置,begining或者end。
    还有一些常用的例如:discover_interval,exclude,sincedb_path,sincedb_write_interval等可以参考官网
    
  • syslog

    通过网络将系统日志消息读取为事件

    syslog{
        port =>"514" 
        type => "syslog"
    }
    # port 指定监听端口(同时建立TCP/UDP的514端口的监听)
    
    #从syslogs读取需要实现配置rsyslog:
    # cat /etc/rsyslog.conf   加入一行
    *.* @172.17.128.200:514   #指定日志输入到这个端口,然后logstash监听这个端口,如果有新日志输入则读取
    # service rsyslog restart   #重启日志服务
    
  • beats

    从Elastic beats接收事件

    beats {
        port => 5044   #要监听的端口
    }
    # 还有host等选项
    
    # 从beat读取需要先配置beat端,从beat输出到logstash。
    # vim /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml 
    ..........
    output.logstash:
    hosts: ["localhost:5044"]
    
  • kafka

    将 kafka topic 中的数据读取为事件

    kafka{
        bootstrap_servers=> "kafka01:9092,kafka02:9092,kafka03:9092"
        topics => ["access_log"]
        group_id => "logstash-file"
        codec => "json"
    }
    
    kafka{
        bootstrap_servers=> "kafka01:9092,kafka02:9092,kafka03:9092"
        topics => ["weixin_log","user_log"]  
        codec => "json"
    }
    
    # bootstrap_servers 用于建立群集初始连接的Kafka实例的URL列表。
    # topics  要订阅的主题列表,kafka topics
    # group_id 消费者所属组的标识符,默认为logstash。kafka中一个主题的消息将通过相同的方式分发到Logstash的group_id
    # codec 通用选项,用于输入数据的编解码器。
    

还有很多的input插件类型,可以参考官方文档来配置。

filter plugin 过滤器插件,对事件执行中间处理

  • grok

    解析文本并构造 。把非结构化日志数据通过正则解析成结构化和可查询化

    grok {
                match => {"message"=>"^%{IPORHOST:clientip} %{USER:ident} %{USER:auth} \[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}\] "%{WORD:verb} %{DATA:request} HTTP/%{NUMBER:httpversion}" %{NUMBER:response:int} (?:-|%{NUMBER:bytes:int}) %{QS:referrer} %{QS:agent}$"}
            }
    匹配nginx日志
    # 203.202.254.16 - - [22/Jun/2018:16:12:54 +0800] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 3700 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_11_6) AppleWebKit/601.7.7 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/9.1.2 Safari/601.7.7"
    #220.181.18.96 - - [13/Jun/2015:21:14:28 +0000] "GET /blog/geekery/xvfb-firefox.html HTTP/1.1" 200 10975 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Baiduspider/2.0; +http://www.baidu.com/search/spider.html)"
    
  • 注意这里grok 可以有多个match匹配规则,如果前面的匹配失败可以使用后面的继续匹配。例如

 grok {
            match => ["message", "%{IP:clientip} - %{USER:user} \[%{HTTPDATE:raw_datetime}\] \"(?:%{WORD:verb} %{URIPATHPARAM:request} HTTP/%{NUMBER:httpversion})\" (?:\"%{DATA:body}\" )?(?:\"%{DATA:cookie}\" )?%{NUMBER:response} (?:%{NUMBER:bytes:int}|-) \"%{DATA:referrer}\" \"%{DATA:agent}\" (?:(%{IP:proxy},? ?)*|-|unknown) (?:%{DATA:upstream_addr} |)%{NUMBER:request_time:float} (?:%{NUMBER:upstream_time:float}|-)"]
            match => ["message", "%{IP:clientip} - %{USER:user} \[%{HTTPDATE:raw_datetime}\] \"(?:%{WORD:verb} %{URI:request} HTTP/%{NUMBER:httpversion})\" (?:\"%{DATA:body}\" )?(?:\"%{DATA:cookie}\" )?%{NUMBER:response} (?:%{NUMBER:bytes:int}|-) \"%{DATA:referrer}\" \"%{DATA:agent}\" (?:(%{IP:proxy},? ?)*|-|unknown) (?:%{DATA:upstream_addr} |)%{NUMBER:request_time:float} (?:%{NUMBER:upstream_time:float}|-)"]       
        }

​ grok 语法:%{SYNTAX:SEMANTIC} 即 %{正则:自定义字段名}

​ 官方提供了很多正则的grok pattern可以直接使用 :https://github.com/logstash-plugins/logstash-patterns-core/blob/master/patterns

​ grok debug工具: http://grokdebug.herokuapp.com

正则表达式调试工具: https://www.debuggex.com/

需要用到较多的正则知识,参考文档有:https://www.jb51.net/tools/zhengze.html

​ 自定义模式: (?<字段名>the pattern)

​ 例如: 匹配 2018/06/27 14:00:54

​ (?\d\d\d\d/\d\d/\d\d \d\d:\d\d:\d\d)

​ 得到结果: “datetime”: “2018/06/27 14:00:54”

  • date 日期解析 解析字段中的日期,然后转存到@timestamp

    [2018-07-04 17:43:35,503]
    grok{
          match => {"message"=>"%{DATA:raw_datetime}"}
    }
    date{
           match => ["raw_datetime","YYYY-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS"]
            remove_field =>["raw_datetime"]
    }
    
    #将raw_datetime存到@timestamp 然后删除raw_datetime
    
    #24/Jul/2018:18:15:05 +0800
    date {
          match => ["timestamp","dd/MMM/YYYY:HH:mm:ss Z]
    }
    
  • mutate 对字段做处理 重命名、删除、替换和修改字段。

    • covert

      类型转换。类型包括:integer,float,integer_eu,float_eu,string和boolean

      filter{
          mutate{
      #     covert => ["response","integer","bytes","float"]  #数组的类型转换
              convert => {"message"=>"integer"}
          }
      }
      #测试------->
      {
                "host" => "localhost",
             "message" => 123,    #没带“”,int类型
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T02:51:08.651Z,
            "@version" => "1"
      }
      
    • split

      使用分隔符把字符串分割成数组

      mutate{
          split => {"message"=>","}
      }
      #---------->
      aaa,bbb
      {
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T02:40:19.678Z,
            "@version" => "1",
                "host" => "localhost",
             "message" => [
              [0] "aaa",
              [1] "bbb"
          ]}
      192,128,1,100
      {
              "host" => "localhost",
           "message" => [
            [0] "192",
            [1] "128",
            [2] "1",
            [3] "100"
       ],
        "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T02:45:17.877Z,
          "@version" => "1"
      }
      
    • merge

      合并字段 。数组和字符串 ,字符串和字符串

      filter{
          mutate{
              add_field => {"field1"=>"value1"}
          }
          mutate{ 
                split => {"message"=>"."}   #把message字段按照.分割
          }
          mutate{
              merge => {"message"=>"field1"}   #将filed1字段加入到message字段
          }
      }
      #--------------->
      abc
      {
             "message" => [
              [0] "abc,"
              [1] "value1"
          ],
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T03:38:57.114Z,
              "field1" => "value1",
            "@version" => "1",
                "host" => "localhost"
      }
      
      abc,.123
      {
             "message" => [
              [0] "abc,",
              [1] "123",
              [2] "value1"
          ],
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T03:38:57.114Z,
              "field1" => "value1",
            "@version" => "1",
                "host" => "localhost"
      }
      
    • rename

      对字段重命名

      filter{
          mutate{
              rename => {"message"=>"info"}
          }
      }
      #-------->
      123
      {
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T02:56:00.189Z,
                "info" => "123",
            "@version" => "1",
                "host" => "localhost"
      }
      
    • remove_field

      ​ 移除字段

      mutate {
          remove_field => ["message","datetime"]
      }
      
    • join

      用分隔符连接数组,如果不是数组则不做处理

      mutate{
              split => {"message"=>":"}
      }
      mutate{
              join => {"message"=>","}
      }
      ------>
      abc:123
      {
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T03:55:41.426Z,
             "message" => "abc,123",
                "host" => "localhost",
            "@version" => "1"
      }
      aa:cc
      {
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T03:55:47.501Z,
             "message" => "aa,cc",
                "host" => "localhost",
            "@version" => "1"
      }
      
    • gsub

      用正则或者字符串替换字段值。仅对字符串有效

      mutate{
              gsub => ["message","/","_"]   #用_替换/
          }
      
      ------>
      a/b/c/
      {
            "@version" => "1",
             "message" => "a_b_c_",
                "host" => "localhost",
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T06:20:10.811Z
      }
      
    • update

      更新字段。如果字段不存在,则不做处理

      mutate{
              add_field => {"field1"=>"value1"}
          }
          mutate{
              update => {"field1"=>"v1"}
              update => {"field2"=>"v2"}    #field2不存在 不做处理
          }
      ---------------->
      {
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T06:26:28.870Z,
              "field1" => "v1",
                "host" => "localhost",
            "@version" => "1",
             "message" => "a"
      }
      
    • replace

      更新字段。如果字段不存在,则创建

       mutate{
              add_field => {"field1"=>"value1"}
          }
          mutate{
              replace => {"field1"=>"v1"}
              replace => {"field2"=>"v2"}
          }
      ---------------------->
      {
             "message" => "1",
                "host" => "localhost",
          "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T06:28:09.915Z,
              "field2" => "v2",        #field2不存在,则新建
            "@version" => "1",
              "field1" => "v1"
      }
      
  • geoip

    根据来自Maxmind GeoLite2数据库的数据添加有关IP地址的地理位置的信息

     geoip {
                source => "clientip"
                database =>"/tmp/GeoLiteCity.dat"
            }
    
  • ruby

    ruby插件可以执行任意Ruby代码

    filter{
        urldecode{
            field => "message"
        }
        ruby {
            init => "@kname = ['url_path','url_arg']"
            code => " 
                new_event = LogStash::Event.new(Hash[@kname.zip(event.get('message').split('?'))]) 
                event.append(new_event)"
        }
        if [url_arg]{
            kv{
                source => "url_arg"
                field_split => "&"
                target => "url_args"
                remove_field => ["url_arg","message"]
            }
        }
    }
    # ruby插件
    # 以?为分隔符,将request字段分成url_path和url_arg
    -------------------->
    www.test.com?test
    {
           "url_arg" => "test",
              "host" => "localhost",
          "url_path" => "www.test.com",
           "message" => "www.test.com?test",  
          "@version" => "1",
        "@timestamp" =>  2018-06-26T07:31:04.887Z
    }
    www.test.com?title=elk&content=学习elk
    {
          "url_args" => {
              "title" => "elk",
            "content" => "学习elk"
        },
              "host" => "localhost",
          "url_path" => "www.test.com",
          "@version" => "1",
        "@timestamp" =>  2018-06-26T07:33:54.507Z
    }
    
  • urldecode

    用于解码被编码的字段,可以解决URL中 中文乱码的问题

     urldecode{
            field => "message"
        }
    
    # field :指定urldecode过滤器要转码的字段,默认值是"message"
    # charset(缺省): 指定过滤器使用的编码.默认UTF-8
    
  • kv

    通过指定分隔符将字符串分割成key/value

    kv{
            prefix => "url_"   #给分割后的key加前缀
            target => "url_ags"    #将分割后的key-value放入指定字段
            source => "message"   #要分割的字段
            field_split => "&"    #指定分隔符
            remove_field => "message"
        }
    -------------------------->
    a=1&b=2&c=3
    {
                "host" => "localhost",
           "url_ags" => {
              "url_c" => "3",
              "url_a" => "1",
              "url_b" => "2"
        },
          "@version" => "1",
        "@timestamp" => 2018-06-26T07:07:24.557Z
    
  • useragent

    添加有关用户代理(如系列,操作系统,版本和设备)的信息

    if [agent] != "-" {
      useragent {
        source => "agent"
        target => "ua"
        remove_field => "agent"
      }
    }
    # if语句,只有在agent字段不为空时才会使用该插件
    #source 为必填设置,目标字段
    #target 将useragent信息配置到ua字段中。如果不指定将存储在根目录中
    

logstash 比较运算符

等于: ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=
  正则: =~, !~ (checks a pattern on the right against a string value on the left)
  包含关系: in, not in

支持的布尔运算符:and, or, nand, xor

支持的一元运算符: !

output plugin 输出插件,将事件发送到特定目标。

  • stdout 标准输出。将事件输出到屏幕上

    output{
        stdout{
            codec => "rubydebug"
        }
    }
    
  • file 将事件写入文件

        file {
           path => "/data/logstash/%{host}/{application}
           codec => line { format => "%{message}"} }
        }
    
  • kafka 将事件发送到kafka

        kafka{
            bootstrap_servers => "localhost:9092"
            topic_id => "test_topic"  #必需的设置。生成消息的主题
        }
    
  • elasticseach 在es中存储日志

        elasticsearch {
            hosts => "localhost:9200"
            index => "nginx-access-log-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"  
        }
    #index 事件写入的索引。可以按照日志来创建索引,以便于删旧数据和按时间来搜索日志
    

补充一个codec plugin 编解码器插件

codec 本质上是流过滤器,可以作为input 或output 插件的一部分运行。例如上面output的stdout插件里有用到。

  • multiline codec plugin 多行合并, 处理堆栈日志或者其他带有换行符日志需要用到

    input {
      stdin {
        codec => multiline {
          pattern => "pattern, a regexp"    #正则匹配规则,匹配到的内容按照下面两个参数处理
          negate => "true" or "false"     # 默认为false。处理匹配符合正则规则的行。如果为true,处理不匹配符合正则规则的行。
          what => "previous" or "next"    #指定上下文。将指定的行是合并到上一行或者下一行。
        }
      }
    }
    codec => multiline {
        pattern => "^\s"  
        what => "previous"  
    }
    # 以空格开头的行都合并到上一行
    
    codec => multiline {
        # Grok pattern names are valid! :)
        pattern => "^%{TIMESTAMP_ISO8601} "
        negate => true
        what => "previous"
    }
    # 任何不以这个时间戳格式开头的行都与上一行合并
    
    codec => multiline {
       pattern => "\\$"
       what => "next"
    }
    # 以反斜杠结尾的行都与下一行合并
    
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